People cope with hazards in different ways. At an individual level, three important factors affect how a person copes (from Course Companion)

1) experience: people with more experience of hazards are better able to adjust to them
2) levels of wealth: people with more money have more choices open to them
3) personality: is the person a leader or a follower, a risk taker or very cautious?

There are options from which they can choose:

Ways of managing the consequences of a hazard depend on:
1) the type of hazard
2) the risk (probability) of the hazard.
3) The likely cost (loss) caused by the hazard.

Task 1: Assessing Risk (15 mins)

Read through the powerpoint and summarise the information here and in the notes above into your own notes.
Choose 3 of the photographs (slides 8-13). Use table 8.9 on p226 in the Course companion to assist you with the types of adjustments that can be made.
As a representative of the Hong Kong government you need to create a cost - benefit analysis and a risk assessment to deal with the named hazard type in each location. Even if you know the location, try to think objectively.

cost benefit analysis
risk assessment
Earthquake on Hong Kong Island
High land value, labour force of 3.8 million people. costs of mitigation: warning systems, emergency, evacuation, building design and regulations
frequency of earthquakes in Hong Kong is low. It is not on a major fault. Magnitudes are low e.g. 2.8 magnitude in 2011.
Individual loss bearing

Task 2: (20 mins)
Complete the adjustment table for each case study. Add this to your notes:

Task 3:
Reducing vulnerability By spreading the risk.
Insurance: The act of insuring / protecting property, people, businesses, against the risk of something happening. A promise of compensation for pre specified losses to property or life which is covered by periodic payments (premium).

What factors could affect the insurance premium:


Insurance used as a measure to reduce the impact of the case studies:
Hurricane Katrina.

1. Aid
2. Insurance
3. Land use zoning

Home Learning:

For one of the case studies on earthquakes or hurricanes, prepare a fact file to add to your existing notes on strategies to limit the damage from potential hazard events and disasters.
For example, give details of the early warning systems, building design and drills carried out in Japan in advance of the tohoku earthquake. Page 227 of the course companion and
will help you with this. These will be added below to share with the class.